California (a & b)


Using California data, this study analyzes returns to career and technical education (CTE) pathways. Award holders are compared to those who have taken CTE courses but earned no award. The research examines which types of CTE programs generate the largest returns and illustrates the substantial heterogeneity of student characteristics and outcomes across the CTE space.

Project Leads

Michal Kurlaender, University of California, Davis

Ann Stevens, University of California, Davis


In this study, researchers are carrying out analyses on general returns to awards, coursework/subjects, and credits from enrollment in California community colleges. The researchers are also examining the returns to credits in different areas independent of the returns to awards, thus exploring the value of postsecondary education for non-completers.

Project Leads

Peter Bahr, University of Michigan

Susan Dynarski, University of Michigan

Brian Jacob, University of Michigan

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