California (a & b)


Using California data, this study analyzed returns to career and technical education (CTE) pathways. Award holders were compared with those who have taken CTE courses but earned no award. The research examined which types of CTE programs generate the largest returns and illustrated the substantial heterogeneity of student characteristics and outcomes across the CTE space.

Project Leads

Michal Kurlaender, University of California, Davis

Ann Stevens, University of California, Davis


In this study, researchers carried out analyses on general returns to awards, coursework/subjects, and credits from enrollment in California community colleges. The researchers also examined the returns to credits in different areas independent of the returns to awards, thus exploring the value of postsecondary education for non-completers.

Project Leads

Peter Bahr, University of Michigan

Susan Dynarski, University of Michigan

Brian Jacob, University of Michigan

Share This